General Carbon Removal

“Assessment Report from the GCEP Workshop on Energy Supply with Negative Carbon Emissions.” Jennifer L. Milne and Christopher B. Field. 2013. Available at:

“Below Zero: Carbon Removal and the Climate Challenge.” The Climate Institute. March 2014. Available at:

"Biophysical and economic limits to negative CO2 emissions." Pete Smith et. al. Nature Climate Change. December, 2015. Available at:

“Carbon and Other Biogeochemical Cycles.” In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Ciais, P., C. Sabine, G. Bala, L. Bopp, V. Brovkin, J. Canadell, A. Chhabra, R. DeFries, J. Galloway, M. Heimann, C. Jones, C. Le Quéré, R.B. Myneni, S. Piao and P. Thornton, 2013:  [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Available at:

"Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration." National Research Council. February, 2015. Available at:

“Ecological limits to terrestrial biological carbon dioxide removal.” Lydia J. Smith & Margaret S. Torn. Climate Change. February 2013. Available at:

“Global Energy Assessment.” Chapter 17. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. 2012. Available at:

"Investing in Negative Emissions." Guy Lomax, Timothy M. Lenton, Adepeju Adeosun, & Mark Workman. Nature Climate Change 5, 498–500. May 2015. Available at:

 “IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014, Mitigation of Climate Change.” Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Edenhofer, O., R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J.C. Minx (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Available at: In particular, Chapter 6 has a section on CDR and geoengineering.

“Exploring negative territory Carbon dioxide removal and climate policy initiatives.” By James Meadowcroft. Climactic Change. February 2013. Available at:

“Is atmospheric carbon dioxide removal a game changer for climate change mitigation?” Elmar Kriegler & Ottmar Edenhofer & Lena Reuster & Gunnar Luderer & David Klein. Climate Change. January 2013. Available at:

“Negative Emission Technologies.” Grantham Institute for Climate Change Briefing paper No 8. Dr Niall R McGlashan, Dr Mark H W Workman, Ben Caldecott and Professor Nilay Shah. October 2012. Available at:

“Negatonnes – An Initial Assessment of the Potential for Negative Emission Techniques to Contribute Safely and Fairly to Meeting Carbon Budgets in the 21st Century.”  By Duncan McLaren and behalf of Friends of the Earth. September 2011. Available at:

“Optimal mitigation strategies with negative emission technologies and carbon sinks under uncertainty.” Sabine Fuss & Wolf Heinrich Reuter & Jana Szolgayová & Michael Obersteiner. Climate Change. January 2013. Available at:

“The potential for land-based biological CO2 removal to lower future atmospheric CO2 concentration.” By Timothy Lenton. Carbon Management. 2010. Available at:

“The role of technology for achieving climate policy objectives: overview of the EMF 27 study on global technology and climate policy strategies.” Elmar Kriegler & John P. Weyant & Geoffrey J. Blanford & Volker Krey & Leon Clarke & Jae Edmonds& Allen Fawcett & Gunnar Luderer & Keywan Riahi & Richard Richels& Steven K. Rose & Massimo Tavoni & Detlef P. van Vuuren. January 2014. Available at:

The Virgin Earth Challenge. Links Page. Available at:

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Carbon Capture Utilization and Sequestration Great bibliography on CCUS research, as well as a project database of CCS projects worldwide.

“A Policy, Legal, and Regulatory Evaluation of the Feasibility of a National Pipeline Infrastructure for the Transport and Storage of Carbon Dioxide.” Submitted to: Southern States Energy Board. Submitted by Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. 2010. Available at:

Australian CO2CRC – CCUS Research Center. Available at:

“Rock Solid Solution: A new project stashes carbon dioxide in the form of minerals.” Andy Extance. Slate. July 2014. Available at:

Carbon Capture Project. Available at:

“Carbon dioxide and enhanced oil recovery: a critical domestic energy, economic, and environmental opportunity.” February 2012. National Enhanced Oil Recovery Initiative. Available at:

“Leading the Energy Transition: Bringing CCS to Market.” SBC Energy Institute. June 2012. Available at:

“Norway to develop fish food from captured carbon dioxide.” Mike McGrath. BBC News. July 16, 2014. Available at:

“Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage.” 2013 Edition. IEA. Available at:

“Technology Survey and Assessment for Piloting of CO2 Capture Technologies.” SINTEF Energy Research. January 2013. Available at:

Teesside Industrial CCS consortium: Available at:

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Biomass Energy + CCS (BECCS or Bio-CCS)

"A commercialization strategy for carbon-negative energy." Daniel L. Sanchez and Daniel Kammen. Nature Energy. Available at:

“Betting on negative emissions.” Sabine Fuss, Josep G. Canadell, Glen P. Peters, Massimo Tavoni, Robbie M. Andrew, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Chris D. Jones, Florian Kraxner, Nebosja Nakicenovic, Corinne Le Quéré, Michael R. Raupach, Ayyoob Sharifi, Pete Smith and Yoshiki Yamagata. Nature Climate Change. September 2014. Available at:

"Biomass enables the transition to a carbon-negative power system across western North America." Daniel L. Sanchez et. al. Nature Climate Change. February 2015. Available here.

“Biomass with CO2 Capture and Storage (Bio-CCS): The Way Forward for Europe.” June 2012. This document has been prepared on behalf of the Advisory Council of the European Technology Platform for Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plants (ZEP) and the Steering Committee of the European Biofuels Technology Platform (EBTP). Available at:

“Combining Bioenergy with CCS. Reporting and Accounting for Negative Emissions under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol.” IEA Working Paper. 2011. Available at:

“Global Status of BECCS Projects: 2010.” Available at:

“Incentivising and Developing a Market for Carbon-Negative Solutions.” Tim Dixon, IEA GHG Research Programme. October, 2011. Available at:

Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium. Available at: Ethanol + CCS project in IL

“Modelling Bio-sequestration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” The Climate Institute. April, 2014. Available at:

“Moving Below Zero: Understanding Bioenergy with Carbon Capture & Storage.” The Climate Institute. April 2014. Available at:

“Potential for Biomass and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage.” Ecofys. July 2011. Available at:

"Co-production of decarbonized synfuels and electricity from coal + biomass with CO2 capture and storage: an Illinois case study." Energy and Environmental Science. January 2010. Available at:!divAbstract

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“Biochar, climate change, and soil report.” CSIRO. February 2009. Available at:

“Biochar from oil palm biomass: a review of its potential and challenges.” Sieng-Huat Kong, Soh-Kheang LohRobert Thomas BachmannSahibin Abdul RahimJumat Salimon. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review. Volume 39. Nvvember 2014.  Available at:

“Physical disintegration of biochar: An overlooked process.” Kurt Spokas Jeffrey M. Novak Caroline A. Masiello Mark G. Johnson Edward C Colosky ,James Ippolito , and Carmen Cordoba Trigo. Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett., Just Accepted Manuscript. Publication Date (Web): July 11, 2014. Available at:

“State of the Biochar Industry, 2013.” International Biochar Initiative. March, 2014. Available at:

“When two small startups take on an industry – together.” By Ilan MochariInc. Magazine. May 2014. Available at: 

"Biochar projects for mitigating climate change: an investigation of critical methodology issues for carbon accounting." Carbon Management. 2010. Available at:,%2089-107,%202010%20Whitman.pdf

"Biochar Systems for Smallholders in Developing Countries." The World Bank. 2014. Available at:

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Enhanced Weathering

“Can mineral carbonation be used for industrial CO2 sequestration?” Michael Priestnall. Cambridge Carbon Capture. January 2014.  Available at: 

“Enhanced Chemical Weathering as a Geoengineering Strategy to Reduce Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Supply Nutriets, and Mitigate Ocean Acidification.” Jens Hartmann, A. Joshua West, Phil Renforth, Peter Köhler, Christina L. De La Rocha, Dieter A. Wolf-Gladrow, Hans H. Dürr and Jürgen Scheffran. Review of Geophysics. May 2013. Available at:

“Making money from mineralisation of CO2.” Michael Priestnall. Carbon Capture Journal. February 2013. Available at:

“Olivine Hills: Mineral Water Against Climate Change.” Roelof D.Schuiling and Elke Praagman. Available at:

“Scoping study on CO2 Mineralization Technologies.” South African Council for Geoscience. Prepared for the South African Centre for Carbon Capture and Storage. February 2011. Available at:

"Comparative study of five Québec ultramafic mining residues for use in direct ambient carbon dioxide mineral sequestration." Gnouyaro P. Assima, Faical Larachia, John Molsonb, and Georges Beaudoinb. June 2014. Available at:

"Carbon Sequestration Kinetic and Storage Capacity of Ultramafic Mining Waste." Julie Pronost, Georges Beaudoin, Joniel Tremblay, Faïcal Larachi, Josee Duchesne, Rejean Hebert, and Marc Constantin. 2011. Available at:

"Strategizing Carbon-Neutral Mines: A Case for Pilot Projects." Ian M. Power, Jenine McCutcheon, Anna L. Harrison, Siobhan A. Wilson, Gregory M. Dipple, Simone Kelly, Colette Southam, and Gordon Southam. March 2014. Available at:

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Direct Air Capture

“Direct Air Capture of CO2 with Chemicals.” A Technology Assessment for the APS Panel on Public Affairs. June 2011. Robert Socolow et. al. Available at:

"The urgency of the development of CO2 capture from ambient air." Klaus S. Lackner, Sarah Brennan, Jurg M. Matter, A/-H. Alissa Park, Allen Wright, Bob vander Zwann. PNAS vol. 109 no. 33. June 2012Available at:

“Willingness to pay for a climate backstop: liquid fuel producers and direct CO2 air capture.” Gregory F. Nemet and Adam R. Brandt. August 2011. Available at:

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“Assessment on Peatlands, Biodiversity and Climate Change: Main Report.": Global Environment Centre, Kuala Lumpur & Wetlands International. 2008. Available at:

"Best Practices in Terrestrial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide." National Energy Technology Laboratory. November, 2010. Available at:

"Biocarbon Fund Experience: Insights from Afforestation and Reforestation Clean Development Mechanism Projects." World Bank. December 2011. Available at:

“Carbon, Fossil Fuel, and Biodiversity Mitigation With Wood and Forests.” CHADWICK DEARING OLIVER, NEDAL T. NASSAR, BRUCE R. LIPPKE, and JAMES B. McCARTER. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 33:248–275. 2014. Available at:

“Forests as a Cost Effective Way to Mitigate Climate Change.” Cornerlius B. Murphy, Huffington Post. July 2014. Available at:

“Great Green Wall.” The Economist. August 2014. Available at:

"Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options and Costs for Agricultural Land and Animal Production within the United States." U.S. Department of Agriculture Climate Change Program Office. February 2013. Available at:

"Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential in U.S. Forestry and Agriculture." United States Environmental Protection Agency. November 2005. Available at:



India State of Forests Report, 2013. Available at:

“Restoration of degraded deltaic wetlands in the Mississippi Delta.” Tierra Resources. August 2014. Available at:

“The benefits of soil carbon. Managing soils for multiple economic, societal and environmental benefits.” UNEP Year Book 2012, Ch.2. United Nations Environment Programme. Available at:

“Trees Help Reduce the Risk of Respiratory Illness.” Science World Report. Kathleen Lees. July 2014. Available at:

“Why Restoring Wetlands is More Critical than Ever.” Bruce Stutz. Yale Environment 360. July 2014. Available at:

Video: Green Gold. Available at:

Video: Soil Carbon Cowboys. Available at:

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Carbon Negative Materials


Carbon Cure:

Innovation Concepts:

Liquid Light:

Newlight Technologies:



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Other Approaches

“Ants could help warming cry uncle.” Scientific American Podcast. July 2014. Available at:

"Fish Carbon: Exploring Marine Vertebrate Carbon Services" by Steven J Lutz, GRID-Arendal; and Angela H Martin, Blue Climate Solutions. 2014. Available at:

“How Fish Cool off Global Warming.” Scientific American. June 2014. Available at:

“Whales as Ecosystem Engineers.” University of Vermont. July 2014. Available at:

“Your Next Roadside Attraction: Carbon Storage.” The Daily Climate. Marianne Lavelle. July 2014. Available at:

"Negative Carbon Via Ocean Afforestation." Antoine de Ramon N'Yeurta, David P. Chynowethb, Mark E. Capronc, Jim Stewartd, Mohammed A. Hasanc. November 2012. Available at:

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Carbon Removal and Geo-engineering

“Appraising Geoengineering.”  Rob Bellamy, Jason Chilvers, Naomi E. Vaughn, and Timothy M. Lenton. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. June 2012. Available at:

“Geoengineering the climate: science, governance and uncertainty.” UK Royal Society. September, 2009. Available at:

“Situating and Abandoning Geoengineering: A Typology of Five Responses to Dangerous Climate Change.” Clare Heyward. University of Oxford Geoengineering Programme. January 2013. Available at:

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